Heating scheme of a one-story house with natural circulation

Heating scheme of a one-story house with natural circulationScheme of heating a private house with natural coolant circulation

In our century of rapidly changing technologies, this scheme (also called gravity or gravity) of heating a private house could be considered morally obsolete, if not for its simplicity, reliability and cost-effectiveness. A gravity-fed heating system is still widely used in the construction of one’s own home and is considered the best technical and economic solution. A small pressure in the network limits its scope, but for a one-story residential building this scheme is very effective and is often considered as an alternative to heating using pumping units.

Natural circulation heating circuit

In the autonomous heating of a one-story or two-story own house, the use of special non-freezing antifreeze compounds is allowed, but it is not recommended to use antifreeze in systems with natural coolant circulation.

The main disadvantages of antifreezes for use in the heating circuit of natural circulation:

  • In the natural circulation heating circuit, expansion tank designs provide for contact with ambient air. Antifreezes quickly evaporate, polluting the environment;
  • The need for continuous monitoring of the volume of the coolant and its periodic replenishment;
  • Antifreezes have low heat transfer, which contributes to a small heat removal by radiators from the coolant during its circulation. This leads to overheating of antifreeze in the circuit and the boiler itself;
  • The use of superheated antifreeze in a closed circuit contributes to the abundant formation of deposits inside the heat exchanger, clogging the bore in the tubes.

The most optimal heat carrier in the gravitational type circuit for heating a one-story or two-story residential building is a water heat carrier due to its low cost and availability.

Natural circulation in heating circuits

The main functional elements of the heating system with the natural circulation of a residential building are:

  • The boiler heating the hot water;
  • An expansion tank, which is a container for discharging excess water that appears when the volume of water coolant in the circuit increases when it is heated;
  • Pipelines for supplying hot water from the boiler to the heating radiators and returning the cooled liquid from the radiators back to the boiler (for which the return part of the heating system in everyday life is called the return). Together they form a closed loop of the coolant circulation;
  • Heating radiators.

When the coolant is heated, its volume increases, the excess of heated water rises vertically up to the expansion tank, hydrostatic pressure is created in the system, depending on the difference in the weight of the water columns of hot (supply line) and cold (return line) water.

Under this pressure, hot water flows from the upper point of the heating main (red line in the diagram) to the heating radiators. The water cooled in the radiators flows through the return line (blue line) to the boiler inlet. A self-flowing heating system in a one-story or two-story house is operational only if, during installation, slopes of horizontal sections of the piping heating line in the direction of fluid movement are provided. Then the coolant will be able to move down under the action of its own weight with the least hydraulic resistance.

Another factor affecting the movement of the fluid is the circulation pressure indicated in the figure by the letter N. The higher the difference in the levels of the radiators and the boiler, the faster the movement of water in the circuit.

In gravity heating systems, the expansion tank is not closed by a lid, therefore this system is often called open. All air plugs from the heating main are forced out to the upper part of the circuit, and there they install a tank open for contact with the atmosphere. A system using sealed tanks is called closed. A pump is used in its composition; by the principle of action, it is already of a forced nature.

Water speed

With cyclical changes in temperature, hot water is in the upper part of the heating system, cold moisture moves in the lower pipes. The main driving force for the natural (without pressure from the pump) fluid movement in the circuit is the circulation pressure, which depends on the ratio of the heights of the boiler and the lowest radiator. The figure below shows a graphical diagram of the occurrence of circulation head h. The parameter h has a constant value for this circuit and does not change during operation of the heating system.

To create the optimum pressure, the heating boiler is installed with a maximum depth of placement, for example, in the basement. In turn, the expansion tank must be installed higher. Quite often, they put it in the attic of a house.

The speed of water circulation in the circuit when installing a gravity heating system of a private house with your own hands is determined by the following factors:

  1. The magnitude of the circulation pressure. The larger it is, the higher the flow rate of water in the heating main;
  2. Diameters of heating pipes. The small dimensions of the inner section of the pipe will provide greater resistance to water flow than pipes with a larger diameter. For single pipe or two-pipe systems under gravity layout intentionally overestimate the size of pipes to D at 32-40 mm
  3. Materials for the manufacture of contour pipes. In modern polypropylene pipes, flow resistance is several times lower than that of steel pipelines damaged by corrosion and coated with deposits;
  4. The presence of turns in the heating network. The ideal option is a direct pipeline;
  5. An abundance of fittings, adapters, retaining washers. Each valve reduces the pressure.

The processes of natural circulation are very inert and proceed slowly. The time between the kindling of the boiler and the complete stabilization of the temperature in the rooms is several hours.

Circuit diagrams

According to the method of connecting heating radiators, it is customary to distinguish two schemes for installing heating system circuits: one-pipe and two-pipe.

For a one-pipe mounting assembly with their own hands, a sequential arrangement of heating devices on the supply circuit is characteristic. Having passed from the top point through all the radiators (red line), the water returns along the return line (blue line) to the boiler.

In a two-pipe scheme, two separate circulation circuits are mounted. One hot coolant flows, supplying heat to the radiators, along another circuit – the cooled water is sent from the radiators to the boiler.

The figure below shows a two-pipe heating system for a two-story house. Distribution of the coolant (red line) along the radiators begins with a maximum height H, providing the required circulation pressure. The cooled coolant (blue line) is collected in the return and sent to the boiler inlet.

Gravity heating systems for a private house impress with its simplicity of the device, ease of maintenance and non-volatility. They do not have pumping units that create discomfort for the living with their noise, there are no vibrations accompanying their work. The trouble-free service life of systems with natural circulation is estimated at half a century, since they lack electric pumps and automation equipment. In general, gravity schemes lose to forced heating systems for a number of points:

  • excessive inertia forces you to wait several hours until the circuit reaches the required thermal regime;
  • the complexity of installation, due to the need for accurate calculations of slopes of horizontal sections of the heating main;
  • the absence of a pump limits the total length of the heating main;
  • continuous monitoring of the coolant level in the expansion tank.

The most suitable area of application of the system with natural circulation are private houses of low floors (1-2 floors), an area of up to 100 square meters. m and a horizontal radius of a gravity chain of not more than 30 m.

DIY heating scheme (with natural circulation) of a private house

If you decide to equip a heating system for a cottage or a country house, then you need to think about efficiency, maximum reliability and ease of work.

Features of arrangement

If we are talking about the forced circulation of the coolant in the pipeline system, then in the process of carrying out the work it will be necessary to install a pump, which should be located on the section of the heating main. Thanks to this interaction, it will be possible to provide a more rapid and constant movement of water. In this case, the disadvantage is the cost of installing additional equipment. If you are interested in a heating scheme (with natural circulation) of a private house, then there will be no need to install a pump. This is because the density of hot water is much lower than that of cold. Due to this, the pushing of one liquid by another is carried out. The coolant, moving along the highway, gives a certain part of the heat to the batteries, gradually cooling. Coming back cold liquid forces hot and light water back into the pipes. This cycle repeats constantly. The process cannot be suspended until the boiler is warming up. If there is a need, the heating circuit with natural circulation (this concerns a private house in the first place) can be supplemented at any time with a pump, which the owners can use if necessary to quickly and evenly heat the home.

Key positive features

The presence of a pump entails additional energy costs. While its absence, on the contrary, allows a good saving. Such systems are completely silent and do not cause unnecessary vibrations. The heating system of a private house (with natural circulation) “Leningradka” has a lot of advantages, among them we can distinguish a unique ability to self-regulation, a very long failure-free operation, which is 30 years, thermal stability and high maintainability.

Preparation for work

If you decide to independently carry out installation work, then you should consider the heating scheme (with natural circulation) of a private house. The path will contain a specific set of elements. Among other things, it contains: an expansion tank, located at the highest point; a pipeline, which may be single or double; heating radiators, as well as boiler equipment. The latter will heat the coolant. Before starting work, it is important to remember that the speed and force with which water will move through the heating system depend on the volume, weight, and density of the hot liquid. The inner diameter of the pipes also plays an equally important role, the resistance coefficient depends on this parameter, as well as the height of the installation of heating radiators in relation to the boiler. The master must know that special requirements apply to horizontally oriented pipelines. They must be installed with a mandatory slope, which is 5 millimeters per meter, turning the pipes in the direction of movement. Only in this way the cooled water will tend to the boiler. The heating scheme (with natural circulation) of a private house involves the installation of fewer elements in the path of the coolant, which would be able to increase the resistance.

Power calculation before installation

If you have chosen a heating scheme for a private house with natural circulation, then before starting the arrangement of the system, you need to determine the power of the boiler equipment. Such calculations can be made using any of the methods below. The first involves the use of volume, the second – area. The master must remember that each of these options allows you to get only approximate results under the most ideal conditions. If the building is not insulated, equipment with a small margin should be purchased. Whereas for energy-saving buildings it will be enough to take a figure within 60 watts as the value of power per square meter.

Determination of capacity by volume

If you will be implementing a heating scheme for a private house with natural circulation, then the most accurate calculation will be according to the volume of the heated room. Initially, this value is to be determined by multiplying it by 40 watts. The next step is to add correction factors. If we are talking about a private house, and the room borders the street above and below, then you need to multiply the result by 1, 5. If there is a room located near the insulated wall, the value should be multiplied by 1.1. In the presence of an insulated wall, multiplication is performed by 1.3. As for each door that faces the street, then for them you need to add 200 watts. For the window, you need to add 100 watts, the minimum value is an indicator equal to 70, the coefficient in each case will depend on the dimensions of the opening.

Determination of power by area

If a closed heating system of a private house with natural circulation will be equipped, then it is possible to calculate the capacity and area. The simplest method is to determine the power of the boiler according to the recommendations of SNiP. It is estimated that 1 kW of power is needed per 10 square meters. The total area of the house should be multiplied by 0.1. It is important to take into account different coefficients, each of which is used for certain territorial areas. For example, for the Far North, this indicator can vary in the range from 1.5 to 2. For the middle band, these numbers vary, starting from 1.2 and ending with 1.4. If we are talking about the southern regions of the country, then the coefficient can be equal to 0.8-0.9.

Installation work: two-pipe system

The water heating system of a private house with natural circulation can be equipped with a two-pipe scheme. Despite the fact that the installation work in this case is more complicated, it was this scheme that became widespread. During its implementation, the liquid will move through two pipes, one of which will be laid from above, where the heated water will flow; while the second must be placed below, the cooled liquid will flow there.

Technology of work

If you are considering the scheme and features of installing heating (with natural circulation) of a private house, then you can use a two-pipe system. Carrying out these works requires compliance with certain instructions. At the first stage, the master should choose a place where the storage unit will be located.

An expansion tank is mounted above the boiler, and you can connect these elements together with a vertical pipe, which after installation must be wrapped with insulation. Approximately at the level of a third of the expansion tank, you need to cut in the upper pipe, designed to transport the heated liquid. We measure the distance from the top point to the floor, after which we connect to the wiring. These works are performed at a height of 2/3. Closer to the top of the expansion tank, another pipe crashes, which will be overflow. With it, surpluses will be removed to the sewers. At the next stage, the pipes are led to the radiators. The batteries must be connected to the lower pipe, the installation of which is carried out in parallel with the upper.

Wizard tip

When a private house heating system is installed (with natural circulation) with your own hands, it is important to try to arrange the pipes as accurately as possible. In this case, the optimum height difference between the boiler and radiators must be ensured. The first must be mounted below the heating devices, so it is best to purchase a floor device that will be conveniently located in the basement or in a special recess.

The nuances of the work

The attic must be insulated. If the temperature in it is excessively low, then there is a chance that the liquid in the pipes will freeze. It is important to adhere to several rules, one of which involves the location of the upper pipe with a certain slope, which should be approximately 7 degrees. If possible, boiler equipment should be positioned significantly lower than heating appliances. Having visited the store before starting work, you should choose pipes made of metal or polymers. The inner diameter of the product should be 32 millimeters. Balancing two-pipe heating, if the pipes were selected correctly, will not have to be done. However, it will be necessary to install a throttle on the hoses to each radiator.

It should be noted that a sufficiently large amount of money will be spent on laying two circuits. It will take a long time for the master, but such a system is more efficient and preferable.

Single pipe installation

If you will be laying a heating system for a private house (with natural circulation), it is advisable to consider photos of such schemes before the start of work. If you decide to use a one-pipe system, you can reduce installation costs. In this case, it will be necessary to lay only one pipe. The system will have a cyclic closed loop, which involves the location of radiators parallel to the main ring. Tearing it at certain points is not required. It will be possible to equip each radiator with an air vent. Such a solution will provide an opportunity to get rid of air in each of the individual sections. To equalize the temperature, it will be necessary to mount chokes and thermal heads. Today the one-pipe closed heating system is quite popular. In some cases, you may neglect the presence of an expansion tank, thus isolating the coolant. As you know, in a forced system, the speed of movement of the coolant through the piping system depends on the performance of the pumping equipment. With natural circulation, things are different. To increase the speed of movement of water, you must adhere to certain rules. Stop valves must be selected as correctly as possible; it is important to monitor diameter transitions. It is not necessary to supply the system with numerous turns, which can become an insurmountable obstacle for the coolant. The master should minimize any obstacles, trying to make the sections as straightforward as possible. With natural circulation, things are different. To increase the speed of movement of water, you must adhere to certain rules. Stop valves must be selected as correctly as possible; it is important to monitor diameter transitions. It is not necessary to supply the system with numerous turns, which can become an insurmountable obstacle for the coolant. The master should minimize any obstacles, trying to make the sections as straightforward as possible. With natural circulation, things are different. To increase the speed of movement of water, you must adhere to certain rules. Stop valves must be selected as correctly as possible; it is important to monitor diameter transitions. It is not necessary to supply the system with numerous turns, which can become an insurmountable obstacle for the coolant. The master should minimize any obstacles, trying to make the sections as straightforward as possible.

Recommendations for work

A similar heating system (with natural circulation) of a private house, the scheme of which assumes the presence of only one pipe, is equipped with products whose internal diameter can vary from 32 to 40 millimeters. The inner surface of the pipes should be as flat as possible, ideal, the only way to prevent the accumulation of deposits, but metal analogues should not be considered at all.


The heating system of a private house with natural circulation, without radiators, will save you a lot of money. However, before carrying out these works, it is worth considering the feasibility of their implementation.

Natural circulation heating system

Equipping the heating of a small country house or cottage, first of all they think about efficiency, simplicity and maximum reliability. Most often there is a natural circulation heating system that meets all of the above criteria.

Forced circulation of the coolant along the pipe lines is carried out by means of a working pump, which is installed on the heating main section. Thanks to this interaction, a constant and faster movement of the fluid is ensured. The disadvantage is the cost of additional equipment.

Learn more about natural circulation.

To equip the heating system with natural circulation, there is no need for a pump. The density of heated water is lower than that of cold water, due to which one liquid is pushed out by another. The coolant, moving along the highway, gives off part of the heat to the radiators and gradually cools down, returning back and displacing warmer and lighter water into the pipes. The cycle repeats again.

This process cannot be stopped until the boiler heats up. The system with natural circulation can be equipped with a pump at any time and run it as necessary for uniform and rapid heating of the premises.

Main advantages

One of the advantages that such systems possess is cost-effectiveness. Installation and maintenance costs are minimized.

The presence of the pump will entail additional costs for electricity. Its absence, on the contrary, will provide an opportunity to save. Such systems are completely silent and do not cause unnecessary vibrations.

Other benefits include:

  • Ability to self-regulate
  • Thermal stability
  • Long uptime – 30 years
  • High maintainability

Typical circuit

If we consider in more detail the circuit with the natural circulation of the coolant, it will contain the following set of elements:

  1. Expansion tank, which is located at the highest point
  2. Heating radiators
  3. Pipeline (double, single)
  4. Heating equipment heating boiler


The strength and speed with which the coolant will circulate through the heating system depends on the weight, volume and density of the hot fluid. An important role is played by the inner surfaces of the pipes, on which the resistance coefficient depends, and the height of the heating batteries relative to the boiler.

Special requirements apply to horizontal pipelines. They must have a mandatory slope of about 5 mm per meter in the direction of travel. Only in this case, the cooled liquid will tend back to the boiler.

It is necessary to try so that there are fewer elements on the coolant path that can increase resistance. Numerous shutoff valves, branches and kinks have to be compensated for by a large pipe diameter.

You may also be interested in the original way of heating industrial premises.

Calculate power on our own

Starting to equip a heating system with natural circulation of the coolant, it is necessary to determine the power of the installed heating boiler. You can perform calculations using one of two methods:

  1. By volume
  2. By area

It should be said that both calculation options give approximate results under ideal conditions. If the house is not insulated, it is necessary to purchase equipment with a small margin. In turn, for energy-saving buildings, it is enough to accept a power value of 60 W per square.

The most accurate is the calculation of the volume of the heated room. First, you need to calculate this value and multiply by 40 watts. The following correction factors are introduced:

  1. For a private house bordering the street above and below, it is recommended to multiply the result by 1.5
  2. If the room is located near the insulated wall , the value is multiplied by 1.1, near the insulated wall – 1.3
  3. For each door leading to the street, 150-200 W is added
  4. For each window, 70-100 W is added, depending on its size

The simplest method is to calculate the boiler capacity, which is recommended in SNiP – by area. It is estimated that for every 10 square meters. m. 1 kW of power is needed. Thus, the total area of the house should be multiplied by 0.1.

It is necessary to take into account the coefficients for different territorial areas:

  • Far North – 1.5-2
  • The average band – 1.2-1.4
  • The southern regions of the country – 0.8-0.9

Choosing a wiring diagram for systems with natural circulation

There are a huge number of schemes according to which it is possible to implement natural regulation. But they are all divided into 2 categories:

Despite the more complex installation process, it was the two-pipe heating scheme with natural circulation of the coolant that became widespread. The liquid is transported through two pipes: one is laid at the top and heated water flows through it, the second below and the cooled water flows.

To independently build a simple two-pipe circuit, you can follow the following instructions:

  • First, the place where the storage unit will be placed is selected
  • An expansion tank is installed above the boiler, together they are connected by a vertical pipe, which is wrapped in a heat-insulating material
  • At the level of 1/3 of the expansion barrel, the upper pipe is inserted for transporting the heated coolant
  • Measuring the distance from the floor to the highest point, it is necessary to make an incision to the wiring at a height of about 2/3
  • Closer to the top of the expansion tank, a second pipe crashes – overflow, through which excess will be removed into the sewer
  • Then you need to run pipes to the radiators
  • The batteries are connected to the lower water supply, the laying of which should be parallel to the upper

It is necessary to try to position the pipes as accurately as possible in the heating system with natural circulation and to ensure the optimal height difference between the radiators and the boiler. The latter should be placed below the batteries, therefore, preference is given to outdoor devices, which are placed in a special recess or basement.

The attic will have to be insulated. If it is too cold, freezing of the liquid in the pipes is possible.

Consider a few more rules to follow:

  1. The upper pipe is recommended to start with a slight slope – 6-7 degrees
  2. Whenever possible, the boiler is installed much lower than heating appliances
  3. It is necessary to choose pipes made of metal or based on polymers with an inner diameter of 32 mm

Balancing two-pipe heating, if the pipes are selected correctly, is not required. Nevertheless, the chokes should be installed on the connections to each battery without fail. It is also worth noting the high initial costs of laying two circuits at once and the length of time spent on the work.

To reduce installation costs, choose the option of laying just one pipe. In this case, a cyclic closed loop is obtained that meets the following conditions:

  1. Radiators should cut parallel to the main ring, and not tear it at certain points
  2. It is necessary to supply each battery with an air vent. This solution will provide the opportunity to bleed air in one particular area
  3. To align the temperature, it is recommended to install thermal heads and chokes

The closed monotube heating system with natural circulation is popular. In a specific case, it will be possible to neglect the expansion tank, completely isolating the coolant.

What affects the speed of circulation?

If in a forced system the rate of circulation of the coolant through the pipes depends on the performance of the pump, things are different here. To increase it, you must adhere to a number of rules:

  • It is optimal to select stop valves and monitor the transitions of pipe diameters
  • Diverse turns can become an insurmountable obstacle, so their number is minimized, trying to make all sections straight
  1. The most suitable pipe inner diameter is 32-40 mm
  2. The inner surface of the pipes should be perfectly flat and not accumulate deposits on itself, steel products should not be considered

Arrangement of heating systems with natural circulation requires some preparation, skills and knowledge. But in order to remain confident in its performance, it is worthwhile to embed a pump, the inclusion of which will occur if necessary.

The heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation: the principle of operation and advantages

The presence of a heating system in the house is a requirement, no one doubts. But the points of view on which principles it should work differ.

There are only two possible options for arranging a heating system (CO). In the first case, the coolant moves along the CO pipelines, obeying the basic physical laws. Such systems belong to CO with EC (natural circulation). In the second, the heating scheme of a one-story house with forced circulation (PC) involves the movement of the coolant through the system due to the operation of the built-in circulation pump.

Principles of work of SO Center

For a better understanding of the principle of operation of this system, you should first understand how the SO of the EC operates. This issue has been examined in detail here.

By integrating a circulation pump in such a system, it is possible to eliminate most of the shortcomings, to achieve a uniform distribution of the hot coolant across all heating devices, thereby increasing the efficiency of the CO and reducing the fuel consumption necessary for the boiler to maintain the set temperature parameters.

The heating system with forced circulation of a one-story house theoretically allows the possibility of mixing hot and cooled coolant. But in fact this does not happen, since the installed models of circulation pumps create small pressures in the lines that do not lead to mixing.

Proper adjustment of the speed of movement of water in the system allows a high degree of efficiency to control how much heat is produced.

In addition, CO with a PC allows the use of radiators of any type.

The advantages that the presence of the pump provides with the PC

  • There are no restrictions on the diameter and materials of which the pipes are used, used for the installation of ?? of the indicated type;
  • This allows you to get some savings on the purchase of materials at lower prices, without loss of quality of work of the mounted system;
  • System installation work is simplified, as there is no need to perform the upper wiring and strict control over the slope of the pipelines;
  • The absence of significant temperature differences in the system has a positive effect on increasing the life of the elements and components of the PC;
  • There is the possibility of performing collector-type wiring, which allows all radiators to be heated to the same temperature, regardless of their remoteness from the boiler;
  • You can increase the length of the pipeline to the necessary;
  • It becomes technically possible to integrate additional devices into the PC center, underfloor heating, for example;
  • Heating a one-story house with forced circulation allows you to set the required temperature, both in the entire building and in its individual rooms. We remind you that temperature control in the EC EC is not possible in principle.

The disadvantages of the system

  1. The system is volatile, which, firstly, adds to the operating costs the cost of paying for the consumed electricity, and, secondly, a power outage leads to a pump stop;
  2. A running pump makes a certain noise that not everyone likes.

Schemes of the device for heating the house with forced circulation.

When installing a heating circuit in a one-story private house, it can be performed in the following options: one or two-pipe. In this case, the wiring can be lower or upper.

Monotube SO PTs

The specified system is executed:

With horizontal wiring in those cases when it is equipped in small residential houses or in industrial premises. From the main riser, hot water entering it is distributed among the risers horizontally, passing through them through all installed radiators. The cooled coolant is returned to the boiler through the return.

An important requirement is the equipping of all radiators with valves for bleeding air (Mayevsky taps), and the installation of shut-off valves at the beginning of the supply line, which allows controlling the room temperature.

With a vertical layout. The CO highway comes from the upper floors to the lower. In one-story houses without an attic it is not used.

Two-pipe SO PC

The heating system diagram of a one-story house with forced circulation with horizontal wiring can be performed in three versions:

  • Collector system;
  • Associated CO;
  • Dead End SO PC.

In the first version, each heater is connected individually, which contributes to their uniform heating. But initially, it requires increased pipe consumption for installation, and, consequently, high costs for their purchase.

Associated COs have equal coolant circulation circuits. this makes the temperature adjustment process simpler and more reliable, but it increases the length of the pipeline being laid. That is, again the extra costs.

In dead-end systems, each subsequent radiator, in the direction of water flow, is further from the boiler, which increases the circulation circuit of the coolant and reduces the efficiency of monitoring the operation of CO.

With a vertical layout. Do-it-yourself heating in a one-story house according to the specified scheme can be performed with the lower or upper wiring.

In the first case, the circulation pump delivers cold coolant from the return to the boiler. From it – to the supply line and further along the radiators. Cooling down, the water through the expansion tank returns to the boiler.

In the second case, the CO main pipeline is located above the radiators (most often in the attic), and the return line is laid on the floor of the room or in the basement under the ceiling. The coolant circulates from the boiler to the supply line, from there to the radiators, from which to the return pipe and through the expansion tank, it is pumped into the boiler.

The choice of the circulation pump

Pumps, first of all, are selected according to such parameters as the created head and capacity. Their required value is preliminarily calculated taking into account the size of the room that will be heated by the PC.

Heating scheme of a one-story house – types of heating

In most cases, for average citizens, a private house is associated with a one-story building. Perhaps we still have strong stereotypes, or maybe crisis times just came that made us consider not only the cost of all building materials, but also how much it would cost us to maintain the house. In this regard, fuel, which will provide normal living conditions in a private house, is of particular relevance. Without fuel, it is difficult to cook and heat rooms. Even at the stage of creating a building project, a good owner should take into account all life support systems. One of the first to be developed is a heating scheme for a one-story house. Although at certain moments in life, people who live in a private house for most of their lives also face this challenge, as a modernization of an existing heating system or its complete replacement. It will be useful to read about the heating system.

Types of fuel for heating systems

Any heating system should begin with a choice of fuel. It can be peat, firewood, gas, coal or liquid fuel. Recently, very often during the heating device began to use heating boilers. But the most economical option is gas (You can read more about calculating heat for heating here).

Single pipe system and its design

Of course, the constructive solution of the heating system mainly depends on the financial capabilities of the owner. There are currently no restrictions on the technical implementation of any system. On the market you will find materials and equipment for any wallet. The most affordable and traditional is the one-pipe heating system of a one-story house with natural circulation. Water is used here as a heat carrier.

Installing a circular pump can greatly enhance the efficiency of this system. But this will be absolutely necessary only during the arrangement of a house with a large area. If we are talking about a small house, then you can completely do without it.

Please note that the organization of natural circulation involves the installation of a feed pipe with a slope of 5 mm for every 2 m of the pipeline.

The scheme of a single-pipe heating system includes:

  1. – A heat source, such as a heating boiler.
  2. – Piping.
  3. – Expansion tank.
  4. – Elements for connecting to radiators.
Types of single pipe system

Single-tube heating systems are star-shaped, collector and radiant.

The one-pipe heating system of a one-story house functions quite simply. It is only necessary to determine the materials, and then make small calculations on the subject of heat loss at home.

The water heated from the boiler through the inlets and pipelines gets to the heating devices, and once it gets into the radiators, it gives up its heat. After this, the cooled coolant returns through the same pipe back to the heat supply system. At the highest point of this type of heating, which is called “horizontal”, there is an expansion tank.

During the movement of the coolant through pipelines through the walls of devices and pipes, heat is released. One-pipe heating system with natural circulation can be easily and without exaggeration considered the most economical at the present time.

The disadvantage of such a heating system is the difference in the temperature of the coolant at different points in the system. In the final radiator, the water will always be much colder than in the one closest to the boiler. In addition, the single-tube version does not allow the possibility of overlapping one battery; it is necessary to disconnect the entire system at once.

The heating scheme of a one-story house can also imply a two-circuit design. In this embodiment, the house will not only be heated, but also immediately supplied with hot water. Very often you can see two parallel single-circuit systems. One is used for heating, and the second for hot water. In this case, do not forget that the installation of the second circuit will increase energy consumption by about 25%.

Whatever project you want to heat your home, the most important thing is to find the optimal ratio between heat loss and energy consumption. In addition, you need to take into account the power characteristics of the heating boiler, as well as the efficiency of radiator batteries.

The heating scheme of a one-story house

Is it possible to organize heating of a private house on their own? Yes, if you have a detailed wiring diagram for the heating system. Have minimal experience with the pipeline? Then you are sure to handle it. In this article, a heating scheme for a one-story house will be analyzed. We will provide useful tips for beginner private builders. The main thing is that the system be fault-tolerant and cheap, then homework will save on hiring professional workers. We will analyze in detail one-pipe and two-pipe networks, and also study the requirements for heating a private house.

System requirements

For everything to work reliably, the following requirements must be observed:

  • Fault tolerance. This parameter is responsible for the functioning of the heating system in any frost. It should not have excessive heat transfer, as this will prevent the system from working normally in cold weather.
  • Easy to install. Not all owners can afford to hire professionals for the design and installation of a heating network, so you need to choose the simplest heating schemes. Do-it-yourself work is always a rewarding experience.
  • Lack of dependence on energy. It will be great if the system can function with natural circulation. Typically, craftsmen install heating with forced circulation, but at the same time, the system can work and natural, despite the decline in efficiency.
  • Profitability. Despite the fact that the heating circuit has practically no effect on the efficiency of the boiler, we recommend that we do everything possible to achieve maximum heat savings.

The photo shows a boiler that continues to operate even after turning off the circulation pump. It functions in a confined space.


It is worth saying that the item “No dependence on energy” is irrelevant for electric boilers, since neither a pump nor a boiler can do without electricity. The remaining items work with such an aggregate.

Single pipe system: circuit analysis

A wide selection of building materials and fixtures allows you to choose projects for the owners of a private house with different income levels. First of all, it is worth considering the option of a one-pipe system, since it is considered the most affordable, especially for a one-story building. In a one-pipe network, water circulates naturally.

The scheme looks as follows:

If possible, it is worth installing a circulation pump. It will significantly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the design. But if your house occupies a small area, then this unit is not required for installation. To ensure natural circulation, the slope of the main pipe should be 0.5 centimeters.

A single pipe system contains the following elements:

  • Wiring.
  • Piping.
  • A boiler for heating water.
  • Expansion tank.

The single-tube structure has subspecies: beam-shaped, collector, star-shaped. The design quickly does its job, so its design is simple. The first step is to choose materials for the network.

The system operates as follows. The heat carrier (water) is heated from the boiler, then through the pipes it enters the heating devices. Next, the coolant moves to the radiators, which take all the heat. In the same way, the coolant is returned to the boiler. The expansion tank is the extreme point of a single pipe heating system.

Today, this design is considered the most economical for a private house. The system also has insignificant minuses. The difference in temperature at different points is the first drawback. For example, the water will be much colder in the radiator than in the boiler. The second drawback is that you have to block the entire structure if you need to block at least one battery.

Double pipe network

For a one-story building, you can do-it-yourself installation of a dual-circuit heating network. This is a more expensive option when compared with the previous scheme, but at the same time there will always be hot water in the house. The essence of the dual-circuit system is as follows: the first circuit is used to provide hot water, the second – for heating.

Below is an excellent example of a dual-circuit network that you can install yourself:

There are two pipelines along the perimeter of the building (in the living room and under the floor) – the return and the supply. Convectors, radiators and registers are used on the network as jumpers, which create a short circuit. The coolant tends to circulate through heaters that are located closest to the circulation pump. But we need to make sure that distant appliances get heat too. For these purposes, restrictive chokes are installed.

As for the minuses of this system, there are two of them:

  1. Increased risk when defrosting without balancing.
  2. A large number of pipe systems that adversely affect savings.

Implementation scheme for a private house, installation

Despite the fact that water heating with natural circulation has a number of disadvantages, which are mainly associated with its high inertness, that is, the slow heating of the room, it is still very often used to equip autonomous gas or solid fuel heating in private houses and apartments.

This is due to the advantages that heating with natural circulation has in comparison with the forced pumping of the coolant through the heating system using an electric pump.

Firstly, this heating system is somewhat cheaper, because it does not require the purchase of a pump, and secondly, it is not critical to power outages and will always work when the heating boiler is on.

However, its use imposes certain restrictions on the installation sites of the boiler and heating batteries, requires accurate pipe laying and more careful design, since with the slightest errors in the project or during the installation of the heating system, its effectiveness can become much lower.

The principle of operation of the heating system with natural circulation

The principle of operation of such a system is extremely simple and based on the difference in the density of water at different temperatures. When heated in a heating boiler, hot water rises upward through a closed circuit pipe, and cold water flows into its place, which has already cooled down in the heating batteries. The greater the height difference between the upper and lower points of the heating circuit, the more efficient is the circulation of water in the system, which also depends on observing the inclination of the pipes for draining the cooled water from the batteries to the boiler, in order to reduce the resistance to the current of water in the system.

Features of the natural circulation heating system

If the calculation of natural circulation and installation of the system is complete, it will be able to work efficiently when the boiler is running, but in some cases it is advisable to install a pump through the valve, which can be used during heating after a break for faster heating of the rooms, especially if the system circuit has significant dimensions.

It is worth noting that the ability to work such a system without a pump allows you to operate it without repair and maintenance for a very long time. Using modern, durable components, heating systems with natural circulation can work for more than 50 years without intervention. However, it should be taken into account that natural circulation will be sensitive to any resistance, therefore it is recommended to use pipes of a larger diameter in comparison with pipes used in heating systems with forced circulation.

It is believed that for the effective operation of such a heating system, the total length of its circuit should not exceed 30 m, however, this restriction is rather arbitrary and can be significantly increased, hoping that it will take more time to uniformly warm up all the rooms of the house. Of course, the high inertia of such a system is its main drawback and it may take several hours to reach the operating temperature regime, however, this drawback is fully compensated by its simplicity and high reliability.

To reduce the inertia of the system and increase its efficiency, it is necessary to lay all inlet and outlet pipes for natural circulation not strictly horizontally, but with a slight slope that enhances the flow of water. At the same time, an expansion tank is necessarily installed in the upper part of the circuit, which is not only a compensator for increasing the pressure in the system and assumes the “excess” volume of water expanding when heated, but also collects air bubbles, which can cause the formation of an air plug.

This system can rightfully be called self-regulating, because when the room is cold, the battery transfers heat faster, the water cools faster, which means that its circulation rate in the system increases. When the room warms up completely, the circulation slows to a minimum, which contributes to energy savings.

The choice of materials for mounting the heating system

The operational characteristics of a natural circulation heating system directly depend on which pipes and from which material it is laid.

The larger the diameter of the pipe, the more efficient the system will work, so it is recommended to use pipes with a diameter of 32-40 mm or even more.

Much also depends on the material of the pipes, for example, if you use steel that corrodes, the roughness of the inside of the pipe will interfere with the normal flow of water and reduce its circulation speed. Also, sharp sections of diameter changes, unjustified sharp bends of pipes should be avoided, which will certainly lead to a slowdown in the flow of water and a decrease in the efficiency of its circulation.

Approximate calculation of the heating system

It is worth noting that although the heating circuit with natural circulation is as simple as possible, it is quite difficult to accurately calculate its parameters, since there can be many factors in the system itself and in the house as a whole that will affect the heating efficiency. Therefore, no matter what calculation method you use, you should install heating with natural circulation with some margin. At the same time, you can always adjust the required temperature in the rooms more accurately by changing the settings of the boiler automation.

In practice, two calculation methods are used, which are required for heating thermal power, in terms of area and volume of a room, using coefficients and corrections to take into account heat loss.

So, for example, when calculating the area, a norm of 1 kW per 10 meters of square premises is used. Moreover, for regions with a relatively warm climate, a coefficient from 0.7 to 0.9 is used, for the northern latitudes 1.2–1.3, and for the Far North this coefficient is chosen within the range of 1.5–2. It is believed that the ceiling height in the rooms is 2.5 m, which is far from always true, and if the ceiling height is different, use the volume calculation method.

Also, another 100 W is added to the total power to each window, -200 W to the door, the presence of an external wall adds another factor in the range 1.1-1.5. However, taking into account all these parameters also does not allow taking into account all the nuances that affect heat conservation, therefore, the thermal power is taken with a sufficiently large margin.

Natural circulation heating circuits

In practice, two common schemes for supplying coolant to batteries are usually used:

  • Two pipe system. In this case, two circuits are laid: the circuit of the supplied hot water pipes is laid under the ceiling or in the attic, and the circuit along which cold water is removed from the batteries is laid at the floor level. Each battery is connected to both the upper and lower circuits. The scheme is most effective and allows you to distribute heat evenly without additional adjustments, however, its cost is much more expensive, and the complexity of installation is higher.
  • Monotube system with natural circulation. This scheme in practice is used much more often, especially when it comes to the organization of heating a one-story house. In this case, the closed pipe loop from the expansion tank installed at the top of the house, for example, in the attic, to the boiler installed at the bottom, passes at the floor level under all the batteries. In this case, each battery is connected from below to the common circuit pipe at two points. It is advisable to install a throttle at the battery inlet in the direction of the water flow, which can be used to adjust the water supply to each battery in order to ensure uniform heating both in the immediate vicinity of the expansion tank and at the end of the circuit before entering the boiler.

It is worth noting that this heating system with natural coolant circulation has proven itself in many homes and has been serving its owners regularly for more than a decade.

Moreover, the system allows you to work with any type of heating boilers and build inexpensive, reliable and efficient autonomous heating systems.


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