How to lay paving slabs – technology for the proper laying of paving slabs on sand, a concrete foundation with your own hands
Do it yourself step-by-step instructions for laying paving tiles
- 1 Do it yourself step-by-step instructions for laying paving tiles
- 1.1 The main advantages of paving slabs
- 1.2 How to choose a tile
- 1.3 Site marking and foundation preparation
- 1.4 Drainage system
- 1.5 Foundation construction
- 1.6 Laying tiles on sand and gravel
- 1.7 Laying tiles on a concrete base
- 1.8 Some rules for laying tiles
- 1.9 Sealing joints and gaps
- 1.10 Laying options for paving slabs
- 1.11 Use and care
- 2 Step-by-step instruction
- 2.1 Types and recommendations for selection
- 2.2 Necessary materials for laying
- 2.3 Marking future tracks
- 2.4 Earthworks and protective layer
- 2.5 Drainage device
- 2.6 Placement of fencing borders
- 2.7 Applicable types of substrates
- 2.8 Tile processing before laying
- 2.9 Paving slabs
- 3 How to lay paving slabs: laying technology, tricks!
- 4 Do-it-yourself paving slabs: masonry technology and methods
- 5 Technology for laying paving sabs
- 6 How to lay paving slabs: tips and tricks
- 7 DIY paving: a step-by-step workshop
Many owners of private homes are interested in how to lay paving slabs. This finishing material is now very popular for the deign of house territories. Paving slabs can create not only ordinary masonry, but also the likeness of a multi-colored mosaic of irregularly shaped elements.
The main advantages of paving slabs
Not everyone knows how to properly lay paving slabs. After all, this is a relatively new material. Nevertheless, paving slabs have become more in demand than the well-known paving stones.
Among the main advantages of paving slabs, properties such as:
- low cost;
- simple styling technology;
- environmental friendliness;
- resistance to aggressive environmental influences;
- a variety of shapes and colors;
- the ability to create bright and original elements of landscape design.
In order to lay the track or the site with paving tiles yourself, you do not need special technical skills and knowledge, only the ability to handle conventional tools. If during the installation process you follow the procedure exactly and try a little, everything will surely work out.
How to choose a tile
Paving slabs in landscape design are used in different versions. Tiles can be laid out:
- decorative grounds;
- small courtyards;
- the floor in the gazebo;
- house parking for cars.
Different bases for different purposes of paving slabs
The purpose of the area on which the tile will be laid is the determining moment when choosing a material. Thin tiles (up to 40 mm) can be used to clad paths and areas along which they will walk or ride a bicycle. Tiles of medium thickness (from 40 to 50 mm) can arrange entry and parking for a car.
Thick tiles (over 60 mm) support the weight of a truck with a full body. Such tiles are usually in the form of small bars. This gives the cladding extra strength.
It’s easy to figure out how to properly lay paving slabs. The main condition for the novice master is to choose a section of small width for the first experiments. A garden path is best. It is better to choose a tile monochrome, square or rectangular.
Site marking and foundation preparation
First you need to calculate the area of ??the track or site. It calculates the required number of tiles. You need to purchase material with a margin of 10-15% in case of damage to the material. In order not to be mistaken in the calculations, you can draw a plan for the future site. This will facilitate the necessary calculations and calculations.
Borders are needed at the edges of the track. This will help maintain the integrity of the structure. The border should be several times thicker than the selected tile. Laying the tile is necessary only on a properly prepared basis, not only the appearance, but also the strength of the structure depends on this.
To perform all necessary work, the following tools will be required:
- shovels – shovel and bayonet;
- Bulgarian saw;
- building level;
- rubber mallet or mallet;
- twine or cord, woods;
- Master OK;
- container for preparing the mixture.
First you need to outline the location of the track or site. To do this, pegs are driven into the ground on both sides of the track. A cord or twine is attached to them. You need to walk along the marked area in different directions to determine the correct layout and the optimal location of the site or track. In the process, the markup can be adjusted.
Do-it-yourself paving slab laying technology requires drainage. On clay swampy soil with a high location of groundwater, internal drainage is required. For this, in the process of excavation, the required slope is formed, drainage pipes are mounted to drain the water.
On dry soil, it is enough to arrange external drainage. To do this, paving slabs on the track are laid with a slope of 2 or 3 ° in the direction of the curb. Some water will seep through the seams between the tiles.
Under the foundation you need to dig a ditch. The topsoil is removed to a depth of 20 cm. The remains of vegetation must be removed. The bottom needs to be leveled and condensed. If the soil is very weak, a concrete screed is laid under the future structure of paving slabs. This will strengthen the foundation and provide long-term track or site.
Then the installation of borders. Between them, a pillow of finely graded (10-20) gravel or gravel is filled up. Bulk material needs to be leveled and densified a little.
Borders on both sides of the track must be installed in parallel. The internal space between them should accommodate the required number of tiles. In this case, it is necessary to take into account mounting gaps of 2-3 mm. Then a solution is prepared for concreting borders. Cement grade M300 or higher and sifted sand are taken. Proportion 1: 2.
A gravel pillow at the bottom of the trench is covered with coarse, moist sand that needs to be leveled. The thickness of the sand cushion after compaction of the sand should be at least 3-5 cm. To control from the upper edge of the curb, you need to measure 1.5 thickness of the tile.
Tiles are placed on top. If its position exceeds the desired level by 1 cm, the sand can be tamped. To do this, ready-made pillow should be moistened profusely and left for several hours. Tamp tightly. After a day, you can start laying tiles. The main thing is that the concrete poured under the curbs completely solidifies.
Between gravel and sand, it is recommended to lay geotextiles. This will prevent sand from spilling into the gravel layer and provide unhindered moisture removal.
Laying tiles on sand and gravel
Tiles are laid in clear, dry weather. Wind, rain, dampness complicate the installation process and can worsen the result, especially if the master does not yet have the necessary skills. The track is laid out in the direction away from you, you can’t stand on the sand and gravel pillow during operation.
Before laying paving tiles with your own hands, you need to prepare the mounting mixture. For it, dry sifted fine sand and cement in the ratio 3: 1 or a finished composition purchased in a building materials store are taken.
So that the track can be dismantled later, the tile should be laid only on the sand. Dry mixture or sand is poured to a thickness of not more than 4 cm, you need to level the pillow. When filling, you can use guides from a reinforcing bar, tubes, etc. The mixture is distributed on the working surface with a trowel or rake and leveled using the rule.
If the path is narrow, sand is poured between the curbs and leveled with a trowel. Using the level, you need to draw up a drainage bias. During work, the master moves along the length of the track, holding a bucket of sand and tools at hand. On a wide track, dry mix is ??poured over the lighthouses. The height of the beacons is reduced by 1 cm through each meter of the width of the future path to ensure the flow of water.
On top of the finished masonry, you need to fill in the sand and grout the laid surface with a hard mop. Instead of sand, special grouting compounds can be used. The procedure for working with them is indicated on the packaging.
Laying tiles on a concrete base
Preparatory work for laying paving slabs on a concrete base is carried out similarly. First, the tile is laid on a work surface covered with sand.
To prepare the solution, use cement M500. It must be diluted with water to the required consistency. It is better to mix the solution with an electric drill or a construction mixer. Sand is gradually added to the mixture of water and cement. It should be 4 times more than dry cement.
When laying on concrete, a strict sequence must be observed. Tiles are alternately removed from the sand cushion. For 1 time you need to remove 4 elements of the preliminary masonry. A solution is applied to the freed area. It must be evenly distributed. After laying the tiles on top of the solution, it is necessary to trim and slightly press down with a mallet. When laying between the tiles, special wood spacers are installed to obtain the necessary clearance. When the entire track or platform is laid out, the remains of the solution must be removed from the surface.
Some rules for laying tiles
In order for the laid material to be even and beautiful along the entire length of the track, it is necessary to carefully lay out the initial row of tiles. Across the path, you need to pull the fishing line in compliance with the drainage bias towards the curb. The first tile is installed 0.5 cm from the curb. In the longitudinal direction, laying is level-controlled.
On the track, the tile is laid diagonally and rammed with a mallet. Between the elements you need to leave a gap of 2 mm. The laid out series must be carefully examined and all errors corrected immediately. Usually it is enough to adjust the amount of sand under the bulging or sunken elements. An evenly laid initial row is a guarantee that the entire path will be neat and beautiful.
If non-integral tiles are assumed in the masonry, they must be laid out last. To correctly outline the cut line, the tile must be attached to the installation site. A hacksaw is suitable for cutting tiles, but work will go very slowly. Therefore, you need to cut paving slabs with a grinder. A diamond disk is installed on it. You can use a special knife. You need to work with safety glasses.
Sealing joints and gaps
When the installation of paving slabs is completed, it is necessary to close up small cracks. To do this, you need to prepare a cement solution with a high content of water glass. This will give the structure resistance to aggressive environmental influences. A mixture of sand and cement or sand is poured into the assembly joints between the individual elements.
Sand can only be used to fill slots and assembly joints. A small amount of organic elements or salts will subsequently lead to the appearance of small flora in the paved area. Plants will spoil the appearance of the structure and reduce its strength.
Sand compaction is performed with a narrow spray hose. The procedure must be repeated several times. Bulk material is added each time. The density of the backfill of the assembly joints will ensure the strength and durability of the entire masonry.
Laying options for paving slabs
Paving slabs allow you to create various figures and ornaments in the house area. You can use ready-made styling schemes or come up with your own version of the design of the track or site.
The most common options for laying paving slabs:
- random mix;
- circular pattern.
Using multi-colored elements of different shapes, alternating styling options, you can create interesting compositions on the principle of ordinary mosaics or puzzles.
Figured masonry is best done first on a site near the work site. This will correct individual errors or change something in advance. When the work surface is ready, the tiles are gradually transferred to it and laid in the right order.
To tile a round platform, you need to make a primitive compass from wooden slats with pointed ends. With its help, a circle is drawn on the prepared site on top of the sand cushion. Next, the tile is laid out from the outer edge to the center of the site.
Use and care
A freshly laid path from paving slabs will be ready for use 2-3 days after the end of all work. To remove dust and debris, the track is usually swept with a broom and washed with a stream of water from a hose. Deep patterns with bright colors need to be cleaned more often and more carefully than ordinary masonry.
Sand laid in inter-tile seams is gradually washed out as a track or pad is used. Therefore, it must be added as necessary. Damaged structural elements (such as cracked tiles) are easily replaced with new ones.
Paving slabs are unstable to mechanical influences, therefore it cannot be cleaned with abrasive powder. It is better to use sifted river sand.
Strong stain remover chemicals should not be used. A fairly mild soapy solution. It is applied with a non-rigid brush and then washed off with water from a hose.
In winter, snow and ice must be carefully removed without using metal tools. A snow tip with a rubber tip can be used. This will preserve the decorative tiles. So that the track is not slippery, it must be sprinkled with ordinary clean sand.
Tiles are often used for arranging walkways and accesses to the building on individual building sites, which is easily explained by its accessibility, excellent appearance and high performance. The technique of laying paving slabs is not particularly complicated, but because such work can be done on their own, at home, so to speak.
Today, manufacturers of building materials produce a large number of types of paving slabs that differ in color, shape, raw materials from which they are made, as well as their technical characteristics. It’s easy to get confused in this variety.
Types and recommendations for selection
The question of choice is most often based only on the financial possibilities of the owner of the site, since good paving slabs are expensive, and cheap – short-lived and not too beautiful. The modern market of building materials offers a classification of its main types of raw materials, that is, made of:
- natural hard rock;
- natural stone of soft rocks such as sandstone or limestone;
- artificial stone;
- ceramics and other firing materials;
- color and monochrome concrete;
- polymer sand mixtures.
Most often, individual developers acquire tiles made of colored concrete mixes. This material is affordable and sold in almost any hardware store.
High-quality colored concrete tiles are made by vibrocasting or vibrocompression. Piece products made by vibrocasting have a bright color and a smoother surface. The vibropressed material is more durable and frost-resistant, but not so bright.
Stamped tiles are also sometimes offered. Be very careful with its purchase, as this is most likely a poor-quality material made in a handicraft way.
A very important issue is the thickness of the material, which you must decide before laying paving tiles with your own hands. For walkways in the garden, a thickness of 40 mm is recommended, and for car parking – at least 60 mm.
If you decide to pave the pavement on the street along your site, then use a tile of 60 mm, and on the road (but this will be too noble of you) you need to take products with a thickness of 80 mm.
Necessary materials for laying
Before you lay the paving tiles with your own hands, in addition to it, you must purchase materials such as:
- stone or plastic border;
- cement grade PTs400;
- crushed stone, fractions no more than 40 mm;
- sand, best river or washed;
The required amount of these building materials is determined separately and directly depends on the construction of the base, the type of soil and the expected operating conditions.
Marking future tracks
It is recommended to take a copy of the site plan with the buildings, trees, flower beds and other elements of the arrangement applied to it. Draw a diagram on it. This will be the instruction for laying paving slabs, on which you will continue to work. During the preparation of such a scheme, the direction of the slopes for the free flow of water from the tracks should be taken into account.
When deciding on the width of the tracks, it is necessary to provide that 2 people can safely disperse on it. Usually this value is 1.0 – 1.2 meters.
In the case of a car, the possibility of having a person who should not be forced to leave the paved surface is also taken into account.
The marking is made according to the plan with the help of a tape measure and a cord, which is pulled along the pegs hammered along the planned path. When pulling the cord, 10 cm on each side must be added to the width of the track, with a gap for the subsequent installation of borders.
Earthworks and protective layer
The volume of work performed depends on the density of the upper layer. In the event that the surface is dense clay or any other similar soil, in connection with which it is planned to import bulk soil, then the preparation of the path for laying tiles is reduced to a simple leveling of the surface.
In all other cases, it is necessary to remove 30-35 cm of the surface layer along the entire marked perimeter.
At the bottom of the trench, it is necessary to pour a thin leveling layer of sand and compact it well with the soil. This underlying layer will then need to be covered with geotextile, which will prevent the germination of weed grass, will allow water to drain from the drainage layer, and will prevent the penetration of groundwater rising in spring.
The geotextile stripes are laid out so that adjacent sheets overlap by 15-20 cm, and at the edges of the trench there is a turn up at least 20 cm. In this case, the technology of laying paving slabs with your own hands will be fully respected, and the result of your work will be incomparably better .
A layer of crushed stone 15-18 cm thick is poured onto the rammed bottom of the trench lined with geotextiles. It will serve as a drainage for collecting and draining melt and surface waters. The presence of a drainage layer will prevent the possible accumulation of moisture at the base of the track and subsequent swelling in the event of freezing of the soil.
Crushed stone should be well compacted and sprinkled with a thin layer of sand. On top of the drainage, you need to line the second layer of geotextiles. He will let moisture down, preventing its return.
Stone products are fixed on the mortar, and plastic – with the help of wedges included in their delivery.
Placement of fencing borders
At the next stage of work, borders are installed. For this, you can use almost any material. The external fencing of the tracks is made of stone, concrete, plastic, brick, wood, slate and any other flat materials.
A traditional piece-ready curb made of concrete is considered a traditional option. Recently, manufacturers have offered several types of plastic borders on the market, which are distinguished by their durability, low cost and ease of installation.
The border is installed after the drainage layer.
Applicable types of substrates
To arrange pedestrian walkways on the site, one of three possible types of support base is used:
- from compacted sand.
A concrete base is the most expensive, and therefore it is advisable to use it only in the case of anticipated high loads on the surface. Cement-sand base is the most common and universal. Sand base can be used for small loads on the surface and the absence of heaving soils and their movements.
Schematic representation of a concrete base.
Concrete base casting
Concreting of the foundation, before laying paving slabs, begins with reinforcement. For this, it is best to use a finished welded metal mesh with a mesh size of 100×100 mm. If you have the remains of old metal pipes, wire, rods more than 5 mm thick or other similar metal remains, then reinforcement can be performed using them.
To do this, lay out the metal in the form of a lattice and tie its individual parts at the intersections with wire. It is advisable to raise the reinforcing mesh 3-5 cm above the surface by placing it on metal or stone supports.
The concrete layer should be 10-12 cm thick, and its surface should be below the ground by a tile thickness of minus 3 cm, since we then have to put the paving slabs with our own hands.
If after the installation of the drainage layer the depth of the working trench remains quite large, then the excess is covered with sand, which is then compacted. Concrete mixture using cement ??400 is prepared in a volume ratio of cement, sand and gravel as 1: 3: 5.
Concrete is poured at a time. In the case when the volume of concrete for pouring is very large, it is advisable to order a concrete mixture with on-site delivery. The cost of concrete in this case is slightly higher, but you will save a lot of time and effort. Paving slabs are laid in 3-5 days after the initial setting of concrete.
Sand and cement base
This type of base provides for laying tiles on a dry cement-sand mixture prepared in a ratio of 1: 5. The thickness of this layer is 12-15 cm. To reach the desired level, clean sand is poured under the cement-sand layer and thoroughly compacted.
It is important that at the time of laying the tile, the base material is dry. Therefore, before laying paving slabs, you need to make sure that there will be no precipitation in the next couple of days. The filled mixture must be well tamped and leveled.
For the device of the sand base, river or quarry washed sand is used. The presence of lime or clay elements in the sand is not allowed. After filling the sand, it must again be shed with water, compacted and leveled. Next, paving slabs are already laid.
Tile processing before laying
Before laying paving slabs on your own, it is recommended to treat it with a hydrophobic composition, which will further protect the material from moisture, increase its frost resistance and durability. In addition, water repellents give the tile a more attractive appearance, prevent the appearance of fungus, mold and salt stains on the surface.
To process the tile, it is dipped in a hydrophobic solution, dried and this operation is repeated. During pre-processing, the tile must be carefully examined and all products containing defects should be set aside, since we will then lay them out in other, inconspicuous areas.
The technology of laying paving slabs on a concrete base provides for its fixing to a layer of cement mortar. Putting paving slabs with your own on the mortar is necessary so that it fills the joints as much as possible, while the thickness of the joints does not exceed 3 mm.
Alignment is carried out with a rubber mallet and checked by the building level. The advancement during the masonry takes place “on yourself”, that is, you are always on the already laid tile, and the solution is laid in front of you. At the end of the masonry, all joints must be repaired with a solution to obtain a continuous monolithic coating.
The stages of laying paving slabs on a cement-sandy and purely sandy foundation are the same. The paving slab stacker works by the “on yourself” method, that is, you move along the sand and lay the material in front of you. If necessary, leveling the surface, sand or mixture is sprinkled or, conversely, removed.
Each stone must be hit with a rubber mallet to securely fit into place.
After laying, a small amount of cement-sand mixture is poured onto the surface, which is then brushed to fill the seams.
Then the surface of the newly made track must be poured with water and repeat this procedure after another 2-3 days.
Below is a video tutorial on the topic “Laying paving tiles with your own hands: step-by-step instructions.” The process of laying paving slabs, discussed in it step by step, will tell you about the procedure for laying paving slabs, the features of this process and ways to further care for the coating.
How to lay paving slabs: laying technology, tricks!
Paving slabs today are produced in large quantities, which contributes to the development of mini-production. Thanks to this, paving slabs are becoming more accessible and popular: today, most of the paths on personal plots and sidewalks near cottages are laid out by her. But before embarking on the improvement of the territory adjacent to the house, it is necessary to find out how to lay the paving slabs correctly.
Paving slabs are also called paving stones. It most often has a rectangular shape. There are many styling schemes. Most often, the most traditional ones are used: a column, a herringbone, a brickwork.
Paving stones are attractive in that it is easy to stack, so it is used for landscaping any type of paths. Especially good are areas where several colors of the material are used.
Tiles can serve for a very long time if properly laid. The basis for the pavers should be a pillow of sand and gravel. It is arranged in any case, regardless of the chosen method of laying: on a solution or on a dry mixture.
In order to further strengthen the base, a concrete screed is placed on top of it.
Technology of laying paving slabs
The type of base (crushed stone or concrete) depends on the thickness of the tile and the requirements for the material. First of all, the sod is removed from the laying site to a depth of at least 15 cm. The site is cleaned of roots, debris and plant seeds. After this, the site is subjected to longitudinal and transverse planning, taking into account the slope necessary for the drain of rain and melt water. If necessary (for example, in the case of clay soil).
The next step is tamping or rolling the site: any of the known methods is suitable for this. Grooves dig for curbs. After that, a five-centimeter sand cushion is arranged on compacted soil. A side stone (border) is installed in the grooves, and a small amount of liquid concrete is poured.
In order to avoid deformation of the paved area during operation, the subgrade is covered with geotextile, which is used as 2 layers of black mulching material such as Agrotex, Spandbond or Agril. This is especially important for low-heaving soils.
Crushed stone of the middle fraction (5 … 20 mm) is poured at the bottom of the site with a layer of 20 cm: this is necessary where it is possible to drive vehicles. Water is poured directly on top and tamping is performed. It is enough to cover a non-heaving soil with a 15 cm layer of moistened coarse sand. The following options are possible here.
Backfill of moistened sand with its further leveling by means of a lath.
Moisturizing the sand, rolling it, leveling and laying the reinforcing mesh with a cell of 50 × 50 (a bunch is not used). Then a dry mixture of 3 … 4 cm thick is poured over the net with further moistening.
Cement mortar 2 … 3 cm thick is laid on the gravel without tamping. Sand also does not spill. The solution is prepared from cement grade M150 in the proportion: 1 part cement to 3 parts sand. In some cases, tile glue can be used: a rise in price is justified by greater strength and reliability. At the same time, glue is applied to a concrete screed of 5 … 10 cm thickness.
Paving stones are laid on a ready-made pillow, after which they are rammed with a vibrating plate or a mallet. It is required to observe the level of laying the tiles and form the profile of the track immediately. A slight slope to the edges from the center is necessary: ??this is necessary for the flow of water. After this, a dry cement-sand mixture is poured onto the tile and distributed at its seams. Then the excess mixture is swept out with a brush and the paving slabs are poured with water, which must necessarily penetrate into all cracks and seams. After a while, the mixture will harden.
Some nuances and tricks
When purchasing paving stones, one should take into account the waste generated during trimming. The amount of waste depends on the method of laying paving slabs, as well as on its shape. For example, when laying diagonally, waste increases compared to laying in parallel.
If it is necessary to split the tile, it must first be incised with a grinder. That is, only to incise, and not to cut it completely. This method helps prevent the formation of large amounts of dust, which is formed during cutting.
Tiles laid on a concrete base with a reinforced cushion can support the weight of a heavy car (including a truck). It is necessary to select the thickness of the tile depending on the conditions of its operation: a thinner one is for pedestrian paths, and a thicker one is for the carriageway (entrance to the garage, parking lot). However, in any case, the preparation of the foundation should be taken seriously, and the technology of laying the tiles should be strictly observed: the service life of your track or site depends on it.
Do-it-yourself paving slabs: masonry technology and methods
Paving slabs are a reliable, high-quality material that compares favorably with their direct competitors – asphalt and pavers – with ease of installation, dismantling, environmental friendliness and price.
A lot of laying options and a wide range of paving slabs will make it possible to design a site to your taste, fully preserving its individuality through the use of various patterns and color schemes. High-quality laying of paving slabs largely determines not only the architectural appearance of the site, but also the durability of paved coatings. The technology of laying in a small area is not particularly difficult, therefore, having familiarized yourself with the progress of work and having prepared all the necessary materials, you can safely proceed to independent laying.
What tools and materials will be needed for masonry
Trowel, metal or wooden stakes, cord, building level, rubber mallet, wooden mallet, watering hose with a diffuser, rake, broom, profile, manual tamping, channel, sand, crushed stone fractions 10-20, 20-50 or gravel, cement M400 , M500 or dry plaster mix, geotextiles, paving slabs for tracks with a thickness of 50-60 mm, for parking lots – 70-80, a curbstone.
Paving technology step by step
At this stage, you should decide on the future site for laying paving tiles with your own hands and create its plan drawing. From the existing assortment, we select the necessary types of curly paving elements, we select the styling scheme and color mosaic. On the created drawing plan we apply the dimensions of the plot and, based on this, we calculate the required amount of paving slabs and the volume of materials for the base: sand, gravel or gravel, cement.
Marking tracks and pads
With the help of a tape measure, wooden or metal pegs, a cord or construction twine, we mark out the tracks and the site for laying the tiles. Be sure to walk around the marked territory to check the convenience of location and use. If necessary, make appropriate adjustments.
A carefully prepared foundation is a guarantee of the quality of paving slabs, therefore, this stage of work should be approached with special attention. In good conscience, the foundation made will not let the track or platform eventually subside, thereby ensuring the durability of the coating.
First of all, we remove the old coating, if it was, and remove the sod to a depth of 15-20 cm. We make sure that there are no roots or flying seeds of plants. Although water can seep into the slots, it will still be better to plan the flow of water. If the soil is very clayey, it is advisable to arrange drainage in the deepest part of the trench. In order for the water to drain to the edges, we make transverse and longitudinal slopes. Regardless of whether the tile is laid on grout, dry mix or sand, crushed stone or sand cushion is always used as a base. To strengthen the base, in some cases, a concrete screed can also be made on a sand-gravel mixture.
First of all, at the same level and at the same height, we stack and tamp gravel or gravel. On a tamped base, we construct an intermediate layer of sand, in a compacted state, the thickness of which should be 3-5 cm and such that the paving slabs rise by about 1 cm from the desired coating height before tamping. A geotextile can be laid between the crushed stone and sand layer, which will provide free flow of water, but it will not allow sand to wake up in the crushed stone layer, making the foundation more durable and durable. In non-porous soil without driving in, it is permissible to fill the covered surface with slightly moistened coarse sand 10-15 cm thick, without using crushed stone. The sand layer is abundantly wetted with water. Tamping on a sunny day is done after about two to three hours, and on cloudy days the next day.
As the top laying layer, you can use a ready-made dry mixture or self-prepared cement-sand mixture in a ratio of 1 to 3. We fill the mixture with a layer of 3-4 cm. To make it easier to maintain the same thickness throughout the area, you can use the guides from the tubes. Rake evenly distribute the mixture over the marked area. Channel bars make the screed to a flat surface.
Tiles should be laid away from themselves so as not to disturb the prepared surface. It is advisable to lay them diagonally, laying each new tile in such a way that it adjoins the previous one as tightly as possible, which will help to avoid increasing the thickness of the joints. The gap between the tiles of 1-2 mm for subsequent filling with a dry mixture or sand is enough to create a durable and reliable coating. We tamp the laid tile with a wooden mallet. If the tile does not lie quite exactly, carefully place sand under it with a trowel and align it again with a tamper. After laying, the protruding paving elements are aligned with a rubber hammer under the construction level.
If the conceived paths and platforms have irregular shapes or curly elements are used, the tile will have to be cut, but proceed only after laying the whole tile. Paving slabs are cut with a special knife or a regular grinder with a disc for concrete. Before cutting the tile, be sure to apply it to the future place of laying and draw a line along which we will cut off the excess parts. The installation of a pedestrian curb will help to give the site or track an exact geometric shape and evenly fill in the unfinished areas with tiles sawn in shape. To install the border along the edges of the tiled platform along the stretched cord, we dig a trench of the required size and depth so that the top of the tile exceeds the top of the border by the height of the chamfer. We expose the border to the M100 liquid solution.
Having laid the tile, we check the site for bulges and irregularities. After eliminating the defects, sprinkle all the seams with a dry cement-sand mixture, sweep away the excess and moisten the mixture in the gaps well from the hose with a spray gun. If the mixture at the seams is very sagging, pour a little more mixture into the gaps between the paving slabs. This is a very important point, since sand correctly distributed at the joints will take on the loads that occur on the surface of adjacent tiles, making the coating harder and more reliable. The sand that is used to prepare the dry mixture to fill the gaps between the plates must be clean, without organic impurities and salts, which can trigger the appearance of vegetation. Walking on a paved path is advisable not earlier than 2-3 days after laying the tiles.
Like any other coating, paving slabs require proper care. To make it pleasing to the eye, it should be cleaned regularly. Gray tiles are less whimsical to care for, but colored tiles will have to be washed from time to time. In winter, metal tools cannot be used to clean snow and ice from a tile. Scrap metal and shovels can damage the glossy surface of the tile. To prevent erosion of the tile surface, it is strictly forbidden to sprinkle paths with salt-containing abrasive mixtures. Replace them with clean river sand. Also, paving slabs are not friendly with varnishes, paints and other chemicals.
How to lay paving tiles: laying methods
How the paths and platforms laid out on paving slabs on the site will look like depends solely on your imagination and skill, because even the same elements can be used in different variations.
Technology for laying paving sabs
The technology of laying paving slabs on sand is the simplest and can be used in the absence of the expected large weight loads on the paved surface. Most home masters will be able to do this work on their own, if all the recommendations outlined in this article are strictly followed.
Types of Tiles
To equip pedestrian paths in suburban areas, paving slabs, which are made of concrete by vibrocasting or vibrocompression, are most often used. Vibrocast tiles have a wider color gamut, a variety of shapes and affordable cost. But pressed piece products for paving have higher strength, frost resistance and durability.
For laying on sand, paving slabs must have a thickness of at least 40 mm. Material of lesser thickness is laid on a cement-sand base or on a concrete base by glue.
The shape and color of the material is chosen at the discretion of the owner of the site. The easiest way to use rectangular and square products. It is much more difficult to lay figured material, and if you do not have experience in carrying out such work, then opt for a tile of a simpler form.
The use of dense and heavy natural stones is much less common due to the high cost of the material and more difficult processing during installation. Of course, you can turn to a team of professionals, but the cost of such a service is quite comparable with the cost of acquiring the material, so it is wiser to do the styling yourself.
Work tools and materials
First of all, you will need to prepare a certain set of tools and construction equipment:
- mechanical or manual ramming;
- shovel and bayonet shovel;
- building level;
- plaster rule;
- tape measure 10 meters;
- wheelbarrow or stretcher for moving materials;
- construction trowel;
- metal and rubber hammer;
- cord and stakes for marking.
From the purchased materials you will need:
- coarse sand;
- Portland cement M400;
- crushed stone fractions up to 40 mm or gravel;
- border material;
- sewage trays made of concrete;
- paving stones;
- pure water.
Cutting tiles to the required size during installation along the edges of the track is carried out using an angle grinder with a diamond disk.
Paving footpaths using piece materials is carried out in several stages:
- drawing up a plan and marking on the ground;
- earthen device;
- installation of curb stones;
- the device of the drainage support layer;
- sand filling;
- laying tile materials and drainage trays;
- jointing and finishing work.
The accepted thickness of the poured layers depends on the expected weight load on the paved surface, the density of the soil in the area, the thickness and quality of the pavers and some other indicators.
Even before laying paving slabs on the sand, it is recommended to take a schematic plan of the personal area with the buildings and trees indicated on it. Draw on this diagram the location of the planned walkways and sites. In this case, you should retreat from the trees by a meter and a half and provide for slopes of the path away from the buildings.
After that, using the plan, hammer the pegs on both sides of the track and pull the cord along them. Once again check the correctness of the markup performed and only after that proceed with the physical execution of the work.
To prepare a stable foundation for the cobblestone pavement, it is necessary to arrange a recessed tray in the ground. To do this, remove the topsoil. At the same time, the depth of the earthen tray consists of the thickness of the tile, the underlying sand layer of 8-10 cm and the supporting-drainage layer, the thickness of which depends on the expected weight load on the surface. 8-10 cm will be enough for a garden path, and 15-20 cm for a parking spot of a car.
After digging a trench, its bottom can be treated with herbicides to protect against germination of weeds or covered with geotextiles, having previously compacted the ground well. Geotextiles provide a good drainage of water from the drainage layer and prevent the growth of weeds. High-quality tamping of the soil will protect the bulk structure from subsidence in the future.
Before you fill up the supporting-drainage layer of crushed stone, you need to install curbs. This will require metal pegs that are clogged so that you can pull the cord along the outer edge of the curb. In this case, the height of the cord tension should be the same on both sides of the track and correspond to the installation of the outer edge of the stones.
Curb stones should be installed on a cement mortar, which is laid on the bottom of the trench along the edges. Each border must be checked with a building level for its vertical and horizontal installation. Alignment is made with a rubber mallet, because the use of a metal hammer can crack the material.
Until the solution has set, it is recommended that the curbs be fixed with metal stakes. The external gap between the soil and the stone is covered with sand and compacted with a spill of water.
Crushed stone has two functions. It diverts incoming water further into the ground and is the supporting (foundation) foundation for the sand cushion and paving slabs.
If it is necessary to install a thick layer, backfill is carried out in layers of 5-7 cm with each layer tamped separately. The crushed stone should be slightly sprinkled with sand and covered with a geotextile. The canvas will stop the penetration of sand in the drains under the influence of moisture, and the sand layer will keep the canvas from damage by the sharp edges of the stones.
With a high level of groundwater during snow melting, it is recommended to organize their removal by laying one or two drainage pipes along the edges of the path and directing water to the drainage well or for discharge into a reservoir.
Sand layer for laying tiles
The described technology provides for the construction of a dense sand layer before laying paving slabs on the sand. This layer is fixing for the paving stones, ensuring its horizontal immobility and, most importantly, vertically. A sufficient layer of sand is 8-10 cm, and with small loads on the track it can be reduced to 5 cm.
The sand must be well compacted and its surface should be flattened using a plaster rule or a flat wooden block. To get a completely flat surface for precise alignment, you can install beacons located along the track. The number of lighthouses is arbitrary, but in the middle of the track the lighthouse is higher than the rest.
Sand can also be wetted with water. In this case, it will become more difficult to ram it, but the quality of the seal will increase, and therefore, a greater durability and moisture resistance of the coating will be ensured.
The paving of the track is made on a layer of dry cement-sand mixture with a thickness of 2-3 cm, which is spread on top of compacted sand during masonry. The ratio of cement and sand for the preparation of the mixture is 1: 5.
You need to start by laying the side drainage trays, constantly checking for the necessary slope for the drain of rain and melt water. They are laid close to the curb along the entire length of the paths.
After installing the trays, put one row of tiles across the track, check for a slight slope on the surface from the middle to the edges. This arrangement of tiles will ensure the removal of water from the surface of the track to the drainage trays. Between the tiles should remain seams with a width of one and a half to two millimeters.
Further, using the building level and a rubber mallet, continue to lay rows, moving at the same time “away from you”. With this method of laying, you will not break the even surface of the sand.
In case of mismatch of the edge tiles, their adjustment can be done using a grinder with a diamond wheel.
After laying the paving slabs on the surface of the track or platform, it is necessary to carefully close the seams between the tiles, gutters and the curb. This is necessary in order to prevent rain and melt water from seeping through the paved coating, as well as to exclude the possible destruction of the coating during ice formation.
Sealing of joints is done with a dry cement-sand mixture or liquid cement mortar.
When using a dry mixture, it is scattered on the surface of the path and washed with a soft brush or a broom.
After this, the paved surface must be watered. After a week or two, repeat this operation. It may also be necessary to update the fillings after the end of the autumn-winter period.
Using grout for grouting will provide better quality and density, but will require additional efforts to clean the paved surface from cement deposits.
Some useful tips
The simplest and most economical ways of laying paving slabs are obtained in the case of direct or parallel arrangement of elements. With diagonal or figured paving, a significant amount of waste appears. Especially for people who do not have great skills in this type of work.
When cutting a tile, it is not necessary to cut it to the end. It is enough to cut about a quarter on each side, and then chop along the seam. This will allow you to create less dust in the workplace and stop using a respirator. In addition, this method can speed up the paving time.
The durability and level of stability of the tiled coating depends on the quality of the compaction of the layers and the earthen bottom of the tray. The dense compacted base will be a reliable support for the laid tiles and will be able to withstand large weight loads without breaking.
Instead of curbs, you can use paving slabs placed on the edge, clinker brick or other similar materials.
To increase the life of the laid material, it is recommended to treat the surface with a special hydrophobic compound that will protect the tile from moisture.
How to lay paving slabs: tips and tricks
The production of paving slabs today has acquired enormous proportions, and not only in industrial, but also at home. It is not surprising that this facing material has gained immense popularity in the design of garden paths, sidewalks, etc. However, before proceeding with the improvement of the territory adjacent to your home, you need to figure out how to lay the paving slabs correctly.
Often this material is called pavers. There are many schemes for laying it, the most popular of them are the Christmas tree, the column and the brickwork. This material is good because it is very easy to bridge paths and sidewalks with its help. And the plots on which paving stones of different colors were used look very neat and elegant. So, how to put the paving slabs correctly? Consider the main stages of work.
First you need to familiarize yourself with some tips that will be useful in preparing and laying tiles. When buying paving stones, one must take into account the waste generated from cutting. Their number depends on the shape of the tile and on the way of laying.
Before laying paving slabs, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil from the selected site to a depth of at least fifteen centimeters. You should also clean the place of debris and plant roots. Next, mark the proposed plot taking into account the slope. To rain and melt water depart better, in some cases it is recommended to arrange a drainage.
Your next step should be rolling or tamping the soil. It is produced in any way known to you. Before laying paving slabs, it is necessary to mark the future path and build borders. To do this, dig the grooves where the curb stones are installed. The tamped track must be laid out with geotextiles. This is done so that during operation the paved area does not deform.
As the basis for paving slabs you need to make a “pillow” of crushed stone and sand. It is arranged regardless of whether you chose the laying method: dry mix or mortar. A “pillow” is made as follows: the entire surface of the site is covered with a layer of crushed stone of the middle fraction. The layer must be watered and carefully tamped. Next, pour a layer of sand, which must also be moistened and leveled. It is worth noting that experts offer many ways to properly lay paving slabs in the country. Some masters recommend pouring cement mortar immediately onto the crushed stone layer, bypassing the sand, while others place a reinforcing mesh on the sand layer. Experts also advise pouring the screed not with concrete, but with a solution of tile glue.
Before laying paving slabs, it is worth considering that in the process of work it is necessary to immediately form a track and observe the level of material laying. Paving stones need to be laid on the finished “pillow”, after which it should be rammed with a mallet or vibrating plate. You can lay tiles not only in a traditional, but also in a dry way. This is done as follows: a cement-sand mixture must be poured onto the laid pavers and distributed at all seams. Sweep the remains with a brush, and carefully pour the tiles themselves with water so that the liquid penetrates into all the cracks. Soon the mixture will harden, and your path will delight the eye with accuracy and beauty.
DIY paving: a step-by-step workshop
When ennobling the area around the house, many owners often ask themselves how to cover the paths, the front and back courtyards, the recreation area … The paving slab is excellent for these purposes. Functional coverage in landscaping is unparalleled. The price of the material is far from fabulous, and the laying of paving slabs with your own hands is quite simple in execution. So the design of paths and playgrounds on the site will not cost too much, and at the same time it will be a decent frame for the garden and decoration of the house area.
A variety of colors, shapes and textures
This allows you to create a harmonious ensemble, combining all the elements of the site into a complete picture, and embody any design and architectural ideas.
Thanks to aesthetic appeal and excellent operational characteristics, paving slabs are irreplaceable in landscape design.
Environmental friendliness and comfort
Paving slabs do not emit harmful volatile substances when heated and do not soften under scorching sunlight. Inter-tile seams filled with sand allow excess moisture to seep out after rain, preventing the formation of puddles.
The path paved with tiles does not violate the natural need of plants on the site for water and gas exchange
Easy maintenance and durability
Paving slabs are an ideal covering in the conditions of frosty winters; it has high strength and low abrasion.
Both the technology of laying paving slabs and the subsequent care for it are quite simple. In case of damage to the coating, there is always the opportunity to restore the site by selecting and replacing just a few tiles.
In order for paved paths and platforms on the site to become not only an original addition to landscape design, but also to serve properly for many years, when carrying out work it is important to take into account a number of main points on how to properly lay paving slabs. For example, depending on the location and purpose of the coating, the laying of paving slabs can be performed both on mortar and on sand or gravel.
For the arrangement of garden paths and recreational areas, it is enough to use a sand and gravel “pillow”
Choosing the tile and the necessary tools
At the stage of preparation for laying paving slabs, it is extremely important to correctly select products and necessary tools from a wide range of products that will be simple and convenient to work with. When choosing a tile, it is necessary to focus not only on taste preferences, but also take into account the operational characteristics of the material. So, equipping a recreation area or an indoor carport, you should ask the manufacturer: is the tile able to withstand heavy structures or is designed only for human weight.
Attention is drawn to the surface roughness, the shape of the product: are there any rebounds, will it need to be trimmed
To carry out the work you will need tools:
- Master OK;
- wooden or rubber mallet;
- manual ramming;
- metal or wooden pegs;
- building level;
- I-beam or pipe of any diameter;
- watering can or watering hose with a spray;
- rake and broom;
- M500 cement and sand.
To determine the number of tiles and raw materials for the base, it is necessary to think over the layout of the site, taking into account the location and size of its paths and platforms.
One of the basic rules for laying paving slabs is the need to equip paths with a slight slope for each meter of 5 mm so that water freely leaves them in wells or on lawns.
Arrangement of the base
The success of the entire construction directly depends on the reliability of the base surface. When arranging the base along the edges of the location of the future track, stakes with notches are clogged at a height of 5-7 cm, at the level of which the cord is stretched. The turf layer, stones and debris are removed from the construction site.
In order to lay any paving tiles with your own hands, you must first carefully prepare the foundation
To level the surface of the outlined area in elevated places, an excess layer of soil is removed, and on the hollows, pits and hollows, on the contrary, it is sprinkled. The rake-lined base is carefully rammed. When working with soft soil, it is advisable to moisten the leveled soil surface with water before tamping. Thoroughly tamping the base will prevent uneven subsidence of the sidewalk.
The depth of the base is calculated with a margin of a couple of centimeters, taking into account the fact that shrinkage always occurs during compaction. On average, laying a layer of sand and the tile itself takes from 20 to 30 cm.
After excavation, the front side of the tile should reach the desired level
The entire surface of the future track is given a transverse, longitudinal or longitudinal-transverse slope. At this stage of arrangement of sites and paths, work is also underway on laying communications. Laying geotextiles before filling sand will prevent the growth of weeds between the tiles.
Creating a “pillow” of sand or gravel
Sand can be laid on the prepared base layer of the soil, which will not only increase the stability of the sidewalk, but will also act as a drainage system. The sand should be leveled with a rake and poured with water until puddles form on its surface. After 3-4 hours in sunny weather, the “pillow” can be given a smooth, even shape with the help of a profile, which can also be a regular pipe or beam.
To level the surface of the sand layer, you can use inch PVC pipes
Pipes are placed by rail type at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other. The gaps between them are filled with sand to the same height, providing a flat surface along the entire length of the site.
To impart greater strength to the coating, paving slabs can also be laid on both crushed stone base and mortar. For this, it is necessary to prepare a dry sand-cement mixture in a ratio of 3: 1. The mixture is laid out in an even layer on the base, the channel is screed. When working with “complex” soils, it is advisable to use a combined paving consisting of a layer of cement-sand mixture and concrete.
Installation of pavers
Before laying pavers, it is necessary to pull the cord-order along the chamfer. It is better to start laying paving slabs with your own hands from the curb. The first row is laid out strictly on the cord. Tiles are laid out in the direction “from oneself.
This will avoid increasing the width of the seams. Using crosses will make it possible to set equal intervals of 1-2 mm between the tiles. If the tile does not lie smoothly, you can use a trowel to remove or place a layer of sand under it and then compact it again.
It is necessary to level paving slabs using a building level and a mallet. Upon completion of the laying of the tiles, the seams are covered with a layer of cement-sand mixture and watered.
To give the track a more accurate and attractive appearance, tile joints can be “wiped” with quartz sand
If the tiles are poorly joined with other buildings or landscape design elements, you can trim its edges with a grinder.
Upon completion of work from the finished track, trash and sand remains are swept away. Installing the border on the M100 liquid solution will prevent the tiles from loosening and the track “creeping”.
In the future, it is enough only to update the sand washed out by water in the seams of the paving stones. The path decorated with paving slabs will be an excellent decoration of the site.